Judges through Poets- 1b: Typology

John 20:25:
‘The other disciples therefore said to him, “We have seen the Lord.” So he said to them, “Unless I see in His hands the print [too-pos] of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and put my hand into His side, I will not believe.’

can be an impression of a god
can be a pattern of lifestyle (Phil 3:17)
can be a prefiguring of a pattern that can serve future believers

Eg Adam is a type (too-pos) of Christ in Rom 5:14.
Eg OT believers are a pattern to us. See 1 Cor 10:6-11

Too-pos points us to:
the unchanging covenant of grace
the immutability of God
the sovereignty of God

Typology is prophecy based upon a repetition of patterns.

Examples of typology
The Israelites complain during the wilderness wanderings. God sends serpents so that the people will feel the consequence of their sin. A bronze serpent is set up for the healing of the people. See Numbers 21:4-9.
In John 3:14-15 Jesus states that He is the true bronze serpent so that anyone can have eternal life. The pattern found in the OT is fulfilled and points to Christ typologically.

In Matthew 12:39-41 Jesus claims that Jonah’s story is typical of His work. Jonah is three days inside the fish and then is delivered. Jesus was three days in the tomb then He is delivered from death in being resurrected. Jesus is the greater Jonah.

The fulfilment of typology is always greater than the original type.

Some people are hyper-typers. They make everything fit into a type!

The trials of the Israelites are the for-shadowing of Jesus’ temptation: Matthew 4:1-11
The first temptation is an appeal to Christ’s physical attraction for food. Christ quotes Duet 8:3 back at the devil.

In the second temptation the devil tempts Christ to throw Himself off the cliff. Christ responds with Duet 6:16.

Satan offers riches in exchange for worship. Christ quotes Duet 6:16. Moses uses Duet 6:16 to address the Israelites idolatry.

Jesus fulfils what Israel failed to keep. Jesus in His wilderness temptations stayed faithful to God.

3 Characteristics of types
1) Typology must be firmly grounded in history
The pattern and repetition must be historical events persons or things.
The historical aspect of typology separates typology from allegory. According to the allegorist scripture becomes mystical

2) Typology must have notable correspondences
Song of Songs 1:13
‘A bundle of myrrh is my beloved to me, That lies all night between my breasts.’

Some say that this verse is about the OC and NC with Christ in the middle! Other say that Christ is the myrrh and the two breasts are the criminals crucified either side of Him!

Paul says ‘Christ our Passover’ in 1 Cor 5:7. This is typology not allegory.

3) Typology must intensify
The repetition of the pattern must be intensified. ‘Christ being our Passover’ as typology is realistic because Christ brings a greater salvation when compared with the salvation received by the Israelites.

Repeated Patterns
In Gen 1:6-10 God divides the waters. God divides the waters of chaos and void. Then He brings forth a land. Then He abundantly supplies the resources for this land. Then He puts His people there.

This pattern is repeated throughout the scriptures. For example Exodus 14:15-16:

15 And the LORD said to Moses, “Why do you cry to Me? Tell the children of Israel to go forward. 16 But lift up your rod, and stretch out your hand over the sea and divide it. And the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.

God divides a land of chaos- made chaotic by the plagues and oppression. God drives His people through the chaos into the new land

The pattern is repeated again in Exodus 15:13
‘You in Your mercy have led forth The people whom You have redeemed; You have guided them in Your strength To Your holy habitation.’

See Joshua 3:13-17:
‘And it shall come to pass, as soon as the soles of the feet of the priests who bear the ark of the LORD, the Lord of all the earth, shall rest in the waters of the Jordan, that the waters of the Jordan shall be cut off, the waters that come down from upstream, and they shall stand as a heap.” 14 So it was, when the people set out from their camp to cross over the Jordan, with the priests bearing the ark of the covenant before the people, 15 and as those who bore the ark came to the Jordan, and the feet of the priests who bore the ark dipped in the edge of the water (for the Jordan overflows all its banks during the whole time of harvest), 16 that the waters which came down from upstream stood still, and rose in a heap very far away at Adam, the city that is beside Zaretan. So the waters that went down into the Sea of the Arabah, the Salt Sea, failed, and were cut off; and the people crossed over opposite Jericho. 17 Then the priests who bore the ark of the covenant of the LORD stood firm on dry ground in the midst of the Jordan; and all Israel crossed over on dry ground, until all the people had crossed completely over the Jordan.’

In verses 13 and 15 the word ‘heap’ is used and also found in Exodus 15:8


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