Psalm 23 Contd
V1-4 The Great Metaphor
V5-6 The Shift in the Great Metaphor
The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want.
 He makes me lie down in green pastures.
He leads me beside still waters.
 He restores my soul.
He leads me in paths of righteousness
for his name's sake.
 Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,
I will fear no evil,
for you are with me;
your rod and your staff,
they comfort me.
 You prepare a table before me
in the presence of my enemies;
you anoint my head with oil;
my cup overflows.
 Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me
all the days of my life,
and I shall dwell in the house of the LORD
(Psalm 23 ESV)
V4 ‘the valley of the shadow of death’ in Hebrew represents deep darkness.
21before I go—and(AG) I shall not return—
to the land of(AH) darkness and(AI) deep shadow,
22the land of gloom like thick darkness,
like deep shadow without any order,
where light is as thick darkness."
- Job 10:21-22
The protection that gets the Christian through the valley is the protection of the shepherd in verse 4d. The shepherds rod and staff comfort David.
Jeremiah uses the same image to describe the wilderness wonderings in 2:6
They did not say,(A) 'Where is the LORD
who brought us up from the land of Egypt,
who led us(B) in the wilderness,
in a land of deserts and pits,
in a land of drought and deep darkness,
in a land that none passes through,
where no man dwells?
V5- The seed of the woman is given a special banquet because of the favour of God.
Psalm 78:19 records the complaint of the Israelites. David in Psalm 23 is proving this complaint wrong.
V6- David anticpates eternal bliss with God in heaven.
V1-4 David’s earthly existence which points to the exodus
V5-6 The great banquet feast in Canaan and the banquet feast of heaven
2The LORD sends forth(E) from Zion
(F) your mighty scepter.
(G) Rule in the midst of your enemies!
3(H) Your people will(I) offer themselves freely
on the day of your(J) power,[a]
in(K) holy garments;[b]
from the womb of the morning,
the dew of your youth will be yours.[c]
4(L) The LORD has(M) sworn
and will(N) not change his mind,
(O) "You are(P) a priest(Q) forever
after the order of(R) Melchizedek."
5The Lord is at your(S) right hand;
he will(T) shatter kings on(U) the day of his wrath.
6He will(V) execute judgment among the nations,
(W) filling them with corpses;
he will(X) shatter chiefs[d]
over the wide earth.
7He will(Y) drink from the brook by the way;
therefore he will lift up his head.
The content of this Psalm is similar to Psalm 2. Psalm 110 is a direct verbal messianic prophecy. Psalm 2 uses patterns because it describes a historic episode that prefigures an event in the coming messiah. Psalm 110 is predictive of future events.
There is much evidence for this. For example the two offices of pries and King were always separate in the Old Testament. Therefore the Psalm is about the coming messiah.
Psalm 110 is the most quoted psalm in the NT.
V1 ‘YHWH says to Adonai’- David is speaking about two individuals above him. Jesus refers to psalm 110 as a pillar of his understanding of Messiahship. In Matt 22 Jesus applies Messiahship to Himself. The Father is speaking to the Son in this Psalm.
See Acts 2:32-35
32This Jesus(AV) God raised up,(AW) and of that we all are witnesses. 33(AX) Being therefore(AY) exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from(AZ) the Father(BA) the promise of the Holy Spirit,(BB) he has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing. 34For(BC) David did not ascend into the heavens, but he himself says,
(BD) "'The Lord said to my Lord,Sit at my right hand,
35until I make your enemies your footstool.'
Peter is emphasising that Christ is sitting at God’s right hand not David.
Psalm 110 is made up of two statements of YHWH:
V1- the messiah will sit at God’s right hand. The verse contains anthropomorphism because God doesn’t have a side. The Messiah’s sitting down is also a symbol.
Sitting at the right hand of God signifies a place of honour, great blessing, power and majesty. When Christ comes back he will divide people. Believers will be on the right hand of the throne.
The prophecy was fulfilled at Christ’s accession. See Ephesians 1:19-21
according to the working of(AW) his great might 20that he worked in Christ(AX) when he raised him from the dead and(AY) seated him at his right hand(AZ) in the heavenly places, 21(BA) far above(BB) all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above(BC) every name that is named, not only in(BD) this age but also in the one to come.
V1b- God will give the Messiah victory over His enemies.
- 1 Peter 3:21-22
V2- David repeats what God has said in verse one with different words. God will vanquish the Messiah’s enemies by His own power.
V3- Levitical singers sing praises to God as the Hebrew army go to battle (2 Chron 20:21). The Messiah’s people will sing as He goes to battle.
V4- YHWH declares that the Messiah will be a priest forever. Melchizedek is mentioned in Gen 14:18-20. Melchizedek is a type of the Messiah according to David.
1) The Priesthood of Melchezidek is a Superior Priesthood
Abram submits himself to Melchezidek (Gen 14)
2) The Priesthood of Melchezidek is a Eternal
See Hebrews 7. The Levitical priesthood ended unlike Melchezidek’s priesthood.
3) Melchezidek combines both prophets and priests
“ Behold, the Man whose name is the BRANCH!
From His place He shall branch out,
And He shall build the temple of the LORD;
13 Yes, He shall build the temple of the LORD.
He shall bear the glory,
And shall sit and rule on His throne;
So He shall be a priest on His throne,
And the counsel of peace shall be between them both.”’
Only the Messiah can fulfil both the Priesthood and role of the Prophets.