Biblical Theology 1: Introduction and Inaugurated Eschatology 1

Purposes of the course:
  • to become more familiar with the relevant literature especially with respect to the different ways of doing theology
  • to show how interpreting the Bible relates to biblical theology
  • to understand the theological relationship between the OT and the NT
  • to understand the NT theology of the kingdom, inaugurated, and the new creation
Inaugurated eschatology- already and not yet eschatology in the NT
The use of the term 'latter days' in the OT
  • Genesis 49
    • v1 'days to come' ESV should be 'in the end of days' or 'end days'. Eschatology begins in the OT. Phrase refers to the tribes of Israel and their destiny. First time this phrase occurs. NASB has the phrase. 
    • v10 has been understood as a about the messiah for the Jews 'and to him shall be the obedience of the peoples'
    • v22, 25-26 reference to fruitfulness of Joseph- prophecy of the new creation
    • We need to know Hebrew and Greek so that we don't miss key phrases
  • Numbers 24:14 'I will let you know what this people will do to your people in the latter days'
    • v19 'one from Jacob will have dominion' 
    • v24 is referred to in Daniel 11. Daniel is speaking about the end of time. 
    • v9 shows that Moses is interpreting Genesis 49:9
  • Isaiah 2:2 'it shall come about in the latter days that the mountain of the house of the Lord will be established'
    • Some of the Gentiles will submit to the coming leader in the end times 
  • Ezekiel 38:16 is about tribulation and oppression of Israel in the latter days
  • Ezekiel 39 is a recapitulation of Ez 38
    • 39:29 'I will not hide my face from them any longer, I will pour out my Spirit' - the Holy Spirit will be poured out in the end times
  • Ez 40-48 is about the building of the temple
    • God promises to dwell with His people again in chap 37
    • Chap 40-48 are an explanation of that sanctuary 
  • Hosea 3:4-5
    • v4- the land will be destroyed and they will be sent into exile
    • v5 after the exile they will seek the Lord and David the King in the latter days
    • Israel's return from exile will happen in the latter days
  • Daniel 2:28
    • Daniel is explaining his dream to Neb. about what will happen in the latter days
    • The dream is about a statue divided into four sections
    • In revelation we see four beasts. Beasts denote evil. 
  • Daniel 10:14 'latter days'
    • Chap 10-12 are one section about what will happen to Israel in the latter days
    • 11:30-35- favour to those who break the covenant, he will oppress and come against the temple, he will turn to godlessness through deception. Some of the wise will stumble so that they can be refined. 
    • 12:1 'a time of distress' but some will be rescued through resurrection v2
  • Daniel 8: 19 'I will make known to you what shall be at the latter end'
    • Four kingdoms shall arise from a nation v22 (ref to four beats in Rev 4)
    • A king of 'bold face' v23...will magnify himself in his own heart and destroy many without warning v25
  • Isaiah 65
    • v17 'New heavens and a new earth', 'I will be glad in my people'
    • v22 implies a new Eden due to the tree reference. We will eat of the tree and live.
  • Isaiah 66:22
    • 'your offspring and your name will endure' Greek NT implies resurrection due to life enduring

In summary the phrase 'latter days' refers to...
  • a coming messianic leader who will subdue Israel's gentile enemies
  • a time when some gentiles will submit to God
  • a time of the future reign of God on earth with the Davidic King
  • the time for Israel's restoration from exile
  • a time when some of the covenant community are comprimsed and lock loyalty 
  • the time of the Spirit who dwells in the temple
  • where there will be a resurrection and a new Eden returning to earth
There are other texts that conceptually refer to the 'latter days'. Looking for a phrase is in scripture is not a complete way to do theology. 


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