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Preaching Christ in a Postmodern World: Expounding Christ: The Parable of the Prodigal Son

By Edmund Clowney

How to develop a text using the Poythress method:
1) Static- the meaning of the text
2) Dynamic- the way in which the text describes a speaker, message and a recipient
3) Relations- how the elements of the text to other portions of scripture

Preaching Christ in a Postmodern World: Applying Christ: Getting Down to Earth Part Two

By Tim Keller

3 macro-Strategies for applying a text
1) Critique religion as well as irreligion (read notes from part one)
2) Aim at heart motives as well as the outward behaviour
3) Look at the text through three application perspectives

2) Aim at heart motives as well as the outward behaviour
Self-justification is the doctrine of the Pharisees. If Christ is not your righteousness something else will be. You can avoid Jesus by avoiding sin.

Religion is more of a subtle enemy of the gospel than irreligion practised by the open rebellious person because religious behaviour looks like holy behaviour.

Irreligious people need to be shown that they are practising self-justification.

A Basic Outline for Aiming at the Heart:
i) Speak about what the narrative tells us to be- what standard is the Bible setting for us?
ii) Speak about how that standard is unreachable- we are all sinners who miss the mark
iii) Speak about how problem is resolved in Christ…

Preaching Christ in a Postmodern World: Applying Christ: Getting Down to Earth Part One

By Tim Keller

Faith in the saving work of Christ is the only tool to dismantle sin in our lives.
We are sanctified by faith, not just justified by faith.

3 macro-Strategies for applying a text
1) Critique religion as well as irreligion
2) Aim at heart motives as well as the outward behaviour
3) Look at the text through three application perspectives

1) Critique religion as well as irreligion
Say that the gospel is neither morality nor immorality. The gospel is the third way
Religion says ‘if I work hard on biblical principles God will bless me.’
The gospel says ‘God will bless me through trusting in His Son, this gives me power to work hard at biblical principles.’
Functionally the churchman’s heart tends to religion.

Reasons why this method is useful:
a) Many professing Christians are not Christians
b) We constantly need our practise aligned with their theology
c) Some people who reject Christianity reject it because they believe it to be religion

If we preach: ‘immorality bad and Christianity good’…

Preaching Christ in a Postmodern World: Expounding Christ: Telling God's Story, Narrative Analysis

By Ed Clowney

Example of Narrative Preaching from Matthew 17:1-9
Christ is the one with greater authority than Moses and Elijah. God the Father affirms His authority by saying ‘hear Him’. The Father’s declaration proves the Father’s unity with Him. The Son declares the will of the Father. Moses brought to us what God said to him, Christ is the incarnate word, God’s word become flesh, He is God speaking.
Christ speaks and the dead comes forth, His own sheep hear Him and they follow Him.

The preacher’s task is to bring into remembrance the words that Jesus spoke. The congregation are to hear the message and hear Christ speaking through the preacher. The glory of God is made evident through Christ.

Peter suggests building shelters for Jesus, Moses and Elijah thinking that this was the last feast of booths.

The glory of the true tabernacle is shown at transfiguration.

Christ comes to do his true work of conquest. Overcoming the Devil’s temptation whereby he offered Christ all kingdoms on top of …

Preaching Christ in a Postmodern World: Expounding Christ in through the Structure of Redemptive History Part Three

By Ed Clowney

The individual obedience of Isaac and Jacob is portrayed through the seed of the promise leading us to Christ. There are concepts in structure that naturally flow to Christ. This is typology.

The meaning is presented through its significance in symbolism.

Christ speaks in parables to teach us spiritual truth through natural reality.
Symbolism brings in the feel of the meaning. Symbolic language can be more effective than illustrations.

A metaphor is found in a sentence and not in a word. A metaphor brings together two different worlds; two different images.

Example: Amos 3:8-
A lion has roared! Who will not fear? The Lord GOD has spoken! Who can but prophesy?

The spoken word of the Lord is paralleled with the fierce roaring of a lion. We apply attributes of the familiar concept to the more abstract concept. The roaring of the lion is similar to the speaking of Yahweh.

Metaphors act as a form of contextualisation. Metaphors should be used to tell Bible stories as real stories- app…

Preaching Christ in a Postmodern World: Applying Christ: Getting to Christ

By Tim Keller

Justification and Sanctification by Faith Alone
We’re not only justified by faith- we are also sanctified by faith. We need to exhort people to faith in Christ wherever they are at! Power to live a holy life comes by faith in the cross. We shouldn’t exhort people to right living without giving revealing to them the key: faith.

Sanctification is orienting yourself towards justification. We need to feed off our justification to be sanctified.

Actual righteousness is produced by embracing the means by which we gained our imputed righteousness. Faith preserves us form self inflicted moralism.

Idolatry by Faith Alone
‘All those who do not at all times trust God…but seek His favour in other things or in themselves is breaking the first commandment.’- Luther

The first commandment is broken when you fail to believe in justification by faith. If you’re not trusting in Christ you are trusting in something else.

All people sin in general. Why do we sin in any particular instance? Any sin i…

Preaching Christ in a Postmodern World: Applying Christ: Introduction to Christ-centred Application

By Tim Keller

Keller defines 4 ways of getting to Christ from the text organically

Theme Resolution

Inter-canonical themes are themes that cut across the Biblical canon, for instance the theme of Kingdom or law or grace. The theme develops and thickens as scripture progresses.

Broad themes:
1) The King and the Kingdom
The freedom and glory of God’s kingdom is lost when Adam and Eve sin
The people throughout the OT needed a good Kingship
Only the creator Himself is a satisfactory King because the problems of His people are too deep for any human King to deal with.

2) Grace and Law
This theme asks the question: How can God remain holy and gracious with a rebellious people?

Approaches to this theme:
Conservative: God commands obedience for the receiving of every blessing
Liberal: God loves everyone no matter what they do
The conservative approach is exclusively set on the holiness of God while the liberal approach is only focuses on the love of God.

Isaiah highlights the tension in his writing when des…

Preaching Christ in a Postmodern World: Expounding Christ in through the Structure of Redemptive History Part Two

By Edmund Clowney

In this lecture we will look at the structure of a sermon preached by Edmund called
The Life of Joseph: From Pit to Palace the Lord’s Blessing through Testing based on Genesis 37.

1) God’s blessing on Joseph, the Lord was with Him
Through the favour of the Father
Through the dreams speaking of his future that God gave him
God’s constant presence was with Joseph. This resulted in his success
He was faithful in the service of all people. He was faithful to Potiphor’s officer. He was faithful to Pharaoh.
Joseph gained favour in the eyes of Potiphor. Potiphor gave him authority over his state. God blessed Potiphor because Joseph was there. Wherever Joseph went blessing went.
Potiphor’s wife took a liking to Joseph- this led to Joseph’s imprisonment. The officer in charge of the prison began to like Joseph. Joseph was given power to run the prison. Joseph interprets dreams successfully in the prison.

There was constant success in everything he did.

2) Everything Joseph did well led …

Preaching Christ in a Postmodern World: Expounding Christ through the Structure of Redemptive History Part One

By Edmund Clowney

We must see scripture as a whole. When Christ met with His disciples leaving Jerusalem in Emmaus they were discouraged. Christ says that the disciples didn’t understand the whole of scripture. They didn’t understand that the concept of spiritual redemption came from the Jewish scriptures. Christ showed them that Old Testament is all about Him. The disciple’s hearts burned within them.

In scripture we have one complete story with Christ being the completion of this story. We live in the time of climax. He said ‘It is finished’ (John 19:30).

The Lord in His own redeeming act initiated redemptive history
The Exodus was a move of liberation on God’s part. The Israelites were delivered by the power of God. God didn’t only bring them out of Egypt; He brought the people into covenant relationship and the promised land of Canaan on eagle’s wings (Exodus 19:4).

In Leviticus 26 God promises to walk among His people and be their God. He promises His presence through the construction…

Preaching Christ in a Postmodern World: Introduction to the Christ Centred Model of Preaching

Lectured Tim Keller

In order to prepare a good sermon the preacher should be asking:
What does this text tell me about the person and work of Jesus?

In preaching the preacher should be asking the people:
How am I failing to rejoice in and live as if this text is true about who Jesus is?

The preacher should be showing that people are poor due to their lack of faith in Christ.

The aim of every sermon is to experience Christ through the text. You need to get people to adore and enjoy Christ through the text. We shouldn’t preach principles or example to live up to but re-assure people that living a holy life is derived from faith in Christ.

In a lecture the aim is to transfer information.
In a sermon the aim is to be get the listener to worship on the spot.

Three types of questions to evaluate a sermon:
1) Was it a sound sermon? Was Jesus the climax of the text?
2) Was it practical? Was Jesus presented as the solution to spiritual problems?
3) Was there a sense of God? Was Jesus made visible or only …

Genesis Through Joshua- Dueteronomy: The Ratification and Succession

Structure
27-30 The Ratification of the Covenant
31-34 The Succession from Moses to Joshua

The Ratification of the Covenant (27-30)
27:1-26 deals with the future ratification to happen in Canaan
28-30 deals with the current ratification at Moab

Chapter 27 tells us that Israel is to have a covenant renewal ceremony after entering the land.
Certain tribes line up on one side and the other tribes on the opposite side. In the middle the levitical priest attends the ark.

The building of the alter for the sacrifice
The law was to be written on stones
The people remind themselves of the blessings and curses.

The process is fulfilled in Joshua 8.

Chapter 29 starts with a prologue reminding the people of their history.
Then we see an emphasis on stipulations and careful obedience.
(29:15 = this ratification is a model to come)
If the people continue in sin they will be exiled.
30:1 there can be restoration after exile if the people repent.

30:11-19 = An exhortation to accept the terms of the covenant.
The obedi…

Genesis Through Joshua- Dueteronomy: Stipulations of the Covenant

Introduction and Reminder
Chapter 34 indicates that the book was written for the time after the death of Moses.

1:1-4 Preamble to the book
1:5-4 The Historical Prologue – God recites the blessings He had given them to call them to obedience

In this lecture we are going to be looking at chapters 4:44-26:19

Structure of 4:44-26:19
1) Introduction (4:44-49)
2) General Stipulations (5-11:32)
3) Specific Stipulations (12-26:15)
Conclusion (26:16-26:19)

1) and 2) Introduction and General Stipulations (4:44-11:32)
Introduction (4:44)
i) The Ten Commandments (5)
ii) Loyalty to God (6)
iii) Lessons from the Past (7-11)
iv) The Call to renewal and commitment (11:26-32)

i) The Ten Commandments
There are differences between the two recordings of the 10 commandments

Exodus 20:10-11 Hebrew word = ‘to remember’
Deuteronomy 5: 12 Hebrew word = ‘to keep’

Motivations for keeping the Sabbath:
Exodus 20:10-11- Keep the Sabbath because it is a creation ordinance
Duet 5:12-15 – Keep the Sabbath because you were slaves in Egypt …

Genesis Through Joshua- Dueteronomy: Preamble and Historical Prologue

We are looking at chapters one through four.

1:5-4:43 functions like a historical prologue. This acts as an ancient near-eastern treaty working to remind the people of all a King has done to cultivate respect, loyalty and obedience to that King.

1:5 = An introduction to a prologue. Before this we see a recital of the history of Israel.

God has Moses recite what happened to the Israelites in order to call Israel to respond with loyalty. On the basis of His gracious benefits God expects His people to respond in worship.

The Prologue begins with the time at Sinai and ends with Joshua as a leader.

The Recital of History (1-3)
1) Literary Structure
1:6-8 The call of God to leave Sinai,
1:9-46 Establishment of leaders, spies sent into the land
2:1-23 the wanderings of the first generation
2:24-3:20 the victories of Israel across the Jordan
3:21-4:43 Joshua is established as leader to replace Moses

2) Overview
God assures Israel that He will give them the land
1:9-18 the establishment of leaders
1:9-11 = …

Genesis Through Joshua- Dueteronomy: Overview

The Extrinsic Agents
1) Critical Viewpoints:
Some say that there are old legal traditions that form the book of Deuteronomy (proto-Deuteronomy). It was composed by defecting Levites moving to Judah. These Levites brought with them laws. The proto-Deuteronomy was composed for Josiah’s reforms. The book is apparently found in 2 Kings 22. They claim that the people composed it in the days of Josiah.

The conservative view argues for Mosaic Authorship.

2) Mosaic Authorship
The book contains sermons and events that Moses witnessed. (1:1)
Did Moses pen every word in the book? Chapter 34:1-12 features the death of Moses. From a plain reading of the text with have a portion written after the death of Moses. The sermons of the book are authentic Mosaic sermons. The sermons were taken and published after his death.

3) Date of Final Composition
The book was composed after the time in Moab and before the death of Moses.
The book has a focus on Joshua as a leader of God’s people.

The Redemptive Historical Ob…

Genesis Through Joshua- Numbers: The Second Generation Army

Structure of Numbers
1-10 The constituting of the 1st generation army
10-25 The failures of the 1st generation when marching towards the land
26-36 The constitution of the 2nd generation army

The Basic Content of 26-36
The new army is constituted 26-32
A call to conquest 33-36

The New Army 26-32
God is forming the second generation into an army as he did with the first generation

1) Literary Structure
The count
A military census
A new leader
In 28-31 we see the centrality of the tabernacle

2) Similarities and Differences in comparison with the first generation army
The first generation consisted of 603,550 people. The second generation were counted to be 601,730. Why did God have Moses put these numbers in this book? The similarities in these numbers show us that the second generation were to replace the first.

In sections 1 and 3 of Numbers (see structure above) the movement of the narrative is the same. First we read about the census secondly we read about the centrality of the tabernacle.

In the fi…

Genesis Through Joshua- Numbers: Constitution and Failure of the First Generation Army

The book of Numbers was written for the 2nd generation to help them to re-commit themselves to taking the land of conquest.

Structure
1-10 The constituting of the 1st generation army
10-25 The failures of the 1st generation when marching towards the land
26-36 The constitution of the 2nd generation army

We are going to look at chapters 1-25 in this lecture.

The Constitution of the Army 1:1-10:10
Israel at Sinai is constituted into an army
The army is then counted and arranged in a theocentric process
The tabernacle personal and services
A description is given of God’s presence with Israel.

i) Literary Structure
1-2 The counting and arrangement of the army
3-9 The centrality of the tabernacle
9:15-10 The presence and future of the tabernacle


ii) The counting and arrangement of the army
The 1st generation census in chapter 1 parallels with the 2nd generation census in chapter 26.
The censuses were designed to give a picture of the army that was formed for the conquest.

iii) The total number of fighting m…

Genesis Through Joshua- Numbers: Overview

The Extrinsic Agents
1) Critical Views
Critics claim that ‘J’ (see JEDP theory) the 10th century writer wrote numbers to support David’s Kingdom.
The final edition was the work of P the priestly writer from the 6th century. He was concerned about returning to the land.

2) Mosaic Authorship
We believe that Moses wrote the book. Moses would have experienced direct revelations from God (1:1).
22-24 Could have been a separate story reported to Moses by human agents
33:2 At the Lords command Moses recorded the stages of the journey.
21:14 = direct reference to another source. This book is likely to be a book of poetry and adoration to God. It was named ‘the Book of the Wars of the Lord.’

The Hebrew of Numbers has been updated from the Hebrew that Moses wrote in.
Numbers 12:3 says that Moses was a humble man. How can he be humble if he wrote it? It could be that Moses wrote what God told him to write. It could also be an addition under the Spirit of God.

3) The date of final composition
‘Across from Je…

Genesis Through Joshua- Leviticus: Blessings, Curses, and Vows

Structure of Leviticus
1-7 Sacrifices
8-10 Regulations for Priests
11-16 Regulations of uncleanness and cleanness
17-25 General regulations for holy leaving
26 Blessing and cursing
27 Regulations of Vows

In this lecture we will look at chapters 26 and 27.

Through this book God was calling Israel to recommit themselves to the right way to worship.

The Basic Content
1-25 Sacrifices, cleanliness and holy living
26 Blessings and Curses-the conditions of the covenant
27 Vows- recommitment to the covenant

The concluding chapters (26 and 27) provide motivation to the laws. Blessing and curses appear at the end of other lists of stipulations. See Exodus 23:20-24 and Deuteronomy 29.

Blessings and Curses (26)
1) Literary Structure
26:1,2 Introduction to the material with a re-iteration of previous material
v3-13 Blessings for obedience
v14-45 Curses for disobedience
26:46 parallels with the beginning of the chapter

i) Blessings
26:12- I will be your God
26:46- God brought them out of Israel

ii) Curses
Disobedience pro…

Genesis Through Joshua- Leviticus: Cleanliness and Holy Living

Structure of Leviticus
1-7 Sacrifices
8-10 Regulations for Priests
11-16 Regulations of uncleanness and cleanness
17-25 General regulations for holy leaving
26 Blessing and cursing
27 Regulations of Vows

Basic Content
1) 11-16 Rules for Cleanliness
2) 17-25 Holiness Regulations

1) Rules for Cleanliness
i) The Contents relationship to the Context
1-10 Sacrifice and the Priests.
These chapters deal with specifics of holiness.

11-25 deals with how living become acceptable as worship. We are looking at holy living and cleanliness. Our concerns have broadened as Leviticus progresses.

ii) Cleanliness
10:10 we get 4 words: holy, unholy, common, and unclean.
3 things are holy 1) God, 2) clean persons devoted to God, 3) clean things devoted to God

Common things are not holy. These things can be clean or unclean. If clean they can be used in worship even though they are not holy. An unclean thing cannot be brought before the Lord.

Through purification something unclean can become clean. It then needs to be dedic…

Genesis Through Joshua- Leviticus: Sacrifices and Priests

Structure of Leviticus
1-7 Sacrifices
8-10 Regulations for Priests
11-16 Regulations of uncleanness and cleanness
17-25 General regulations for holy leaving
26 Blessing and cursing
27 Regulations of Vows

In this lecture we will be looking at chapters 1-10

The Holiness of Sacrifice 1-7
a) Literary Structure
1-6:7 the role of lay people in the sacrifices
6:8-7:38 the role of Priest in the sacrifices

Order of the sacrifices featured:
1-6:7 (lay people) = burnt, grain, fellowship, sin and guilt
6:8-7:38 (priests) = burnt, grain, sin, guilt, fellowship

b) Types of sacrifices
i) Burnt.
The sacrifice went up in smoke. These sacrifices happened every morning and every evening. Extra offerings happened on other holy days.
Exodus 29:39-42 tells us that burnt offerings were to happen every day
Burnt offerings used cattle, sheep or goats, dove or pigeon.

Rituals of the burnt offering:
Lay people brings the animal into the courtyard, worshipper lays hands, the priest accepts the offering, the worshipper kills the anim…

Genesis Through Joshua- Leviticus: Overview

The Extrinsic Agents
1) Critical Viewpoint
Some critic’s claim that Leviticus was written by P (a priestly writer).
P apparently lived during the exile and after the exile. He reflected the mood of the day’s worship-ritualistic and legalistic. He claims that Leviticus wasn’t written in the time of Moses. Moses had liberation and freedom.

2) Mosaic Authorship
We believe in the inerrancy of scripture so we believe that Moses was the author.

3) The sources
1:1 Moses received revelations. Some of the book was written form Moses’ memory.

4) The date of final composition
The book was written anytime after Sinai but before the death of Moses.

5) Redemptive historical observations
The book doesn’t deal with history. It deals with rituals and laws.
The divine King gave Moses rules to instruct Israel and form them into a national theocracy. The book gives the standards of holiness for the people.

Suggested Literary Structure
1-7 Sacrifices
8-10 Regulations for Priests
11-16 Regulations of uncleanness and clean…

Genesis Through Joshua- Exodus: Worship under Moses

The Basic Content of 25-40:38
Tabernacle Instructions 25-31
Rebellion and Renewal 32-34
The tabernacle construction 34-40

Tabernacle Instructions
The tabernacle was patterned after something. Where did Moses get the idea to build a tabernacle in this way? God told him to. How did this happen? God gave him a vision of the heavenly tabernacle.
As Israelites worshipped on earth they reflected the heavenly worship.
The tabernacle was similar to some aspects of the cultural in the day.

1) The tabernacle layout
Larger court had bronze alter, basin.
Inner structure had a holy place and the most holy place or the holy of holies.
The inner sanctum is where the King would sit.
Courtyard where the Priests would work
Outer court.

It was a portable, movable place for the King of Israel.

2) The content legitimates Moses
The material in 25-31 was to show the Israelites that Moses was in legitimate authority
27:21, 28:43- lasting ordinances for generations to come. These things were not oly for the time of Moses.

29:4…

Genesis Through Joshua- Exodus: Modern Perspectives on the Mosaic Law

The Challenge
The OT laws were gifts from God for Israel. How can we apply these laws today?

1) The Problems
The law is a complicated issue because OT laws are complicated. We need to exercise humility when applying the OT law to modern life.

2) The Controversy
The diversity in opinion over the law has always existed. You can find a dominant tendency but not an anonymous voice in history.

Major Trends among Evangelicals regarding the Law
1) Dispensationalism
2) Reconstructionism
3) Traditional Calvinism

1) Dispensationalism
i) The variations among dispensationalists
There are many different threads of Dis. Among the more extreme include Schofield and Darby. The Old Schofield Bible represents a strong view of Dis. The New Schofield Bible moves away from the extreme viewpoints represented by the previous Schofield Bible.

ii) Segmentation of Redemptive History according to C.I. Schofield
These ages are separate divine economies:
Eden- the age of innocence
Fall to the flood- the age of conscience
Noah to …

Genesis Through Joshua- Exodus: The Original Meaning of the Law

Suggested structure of Exodus
1-18 Deliverance of Israel under Moses
19-24 The Covenant law under Moses
25-43 Covenant worship under Moses

Unity and Variety within the OT Law
1) The traditional 3-fold division of the law
i) Moral 10 commandments
ii) Judicial Law (social/political structures)
iii) Ceremonial Law (worship regulations)

The OT gives a special status to the 10 commandments. See Exodus 1:18 it is written with the finger of God.
Duet 10:5 = The 10 commandments we’re exclusively put in the Ark of the Covenant.

2) Problems with the 3-fold division
The 10 commandments have judicial and ceremonial elements. 20:16 refers to the court.
Exodus 20:4 refers to a ceremonial law.
31:14-17 = the tabernacle law includes moral aspects.

3) A more integrated approach
There are implications that connect all three types of the law. The background to the ceremonial and judicial law is the moral law. The judicial and ceremonial laws are applications of the moral law. All the laws are cross defining. When divid…

Genesis Through Joshua- Exodus: Divine Authorisation of Mosaic Law

Suggested structure of Exodus
1-18 Deliverance of Israel under Moses
19-24 The Covenant law under Moses
25-43 Covenant worship under Moses

The Basic Content
Looking at 19-24:11
19: Covenant ceremony
20: Ten Commandments and book of the covenant
24: Another covenant ceremony

The Mosaic Covenant
1) The Basic Idea
God gave an agreement to Israel through Moses (19-24).

Initial covenant agreement 19:1-8
Moses is exalted by God as mediator
Giving of the 10 commandments
Moses is exalted by the people as mediator-giving of the book of the covenant
Ratification of covenant 24

2) The 2 Covenant Ceremony’s
(i) 1st ceremony (19:1-8)
God calls Moses to come to the mount by addressing him first
God wanted the Israelites to remember His grace (v3-4)
Stipulations (v5) Israel must obey the covenant for reward

This is a covenant of grace. It has been initiated by God’s grace.
God’s grace precedes the giving of the law.

V8 The Israelites promise to obey
Moses returns to the Lord

(ii) The second Covenant Ceremony (24)
Moses and ot…

Genesis Through Joshua- Exodus: Divine Authorisation in Deliverance and Travelling

Purpose of the book:
To depict Moses as someone authorised by God to establish the law and worship regulations

Suggested structure of Exodus
1-18 Deliverance of Israel under Moses
19-24 The Covenant law under Moses
25-43 Covenant worship under Moses

The Basic Content of Exodus 5-18:27
2 sections:
· The deliverance from Egypt
· The travelling to mount Sinai

Deliverance from Egypt 5-15
1) Literary Structure
First encounter with Pharaoh
Deliverance under Moses
Last encounter with Pharaoh

2) Analysis of the deliverance
5-6
Moses is honest about his attitudes and the attitudes of the Israelites
Egyptians take away straw making the work harder.
5:2 = Pharaoh’s attitude to the Lord
6:9 Moses reports what God says to the Israelites but the Israelites disbelief the word of God

6:10-11 God re-commissions Moses to speak to Pharaoh
6:12 Moses loses vision

13:17-22
Israel begins travel
God guides with smoke and fire

14:29-31- God kills the Egyptians in the red sea

15- Celebration of the red sea
A display of ho…

Genesis Through Joshua- Exodus: Divine Authorisation in Moses' Birth and Call

We want to understand how the first 4 chapters of the book contribute to the rest of the book.

Moses writes this book to defend his authority and programme.

Remember the structure previously mentioned:
1-18 Deliverance of Israel under Moses
19-24 The Covenant law under Moses
25-43 Covenant worship under Moses

Basic Content
1:1-2:10 Moses Birth
2:11-4:31 Call of Moses

Moses Birth 1:1-2:10
Why did Moses write about his birth the way he did?

1) 3 failed oppressions
1-1:14 Israel multiplies under oppressive suffering
1:15-1:21 Pharaoh orders the midwives to kill the children -the midwives disobey
1:22-2:10 Pharaoh orders his men to throw the children in the Nile-story of Moses birth

2:10 = Moses is named

2) Ironic Reversal of Oppression
1-1:14
Pharaoh tries to stop the multiplication. He decides that working them hard would stop them increasing. The Israelites multiply all the more.

1:15-1:21
Pharaoh wants to oppress the Israelites by the midwives. The midwives makes a bad excuse. They say the Israelite wome…